- Mobility Aid Products Australia
By Steven Guptha
COPD symptoms from smoking:
— Typically, after smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day for more than twenty years, patients with COPD develop a chronic cough, shortness of breath (dyspnea), and frequent respiratory infections.
Emphysema symptoms of COPD:
— In patients affected predominantly by emphysema, shortness of breath may be the major symptom.
Dyspnea usually is noticeable during increased physical activity, but as emphysema progresses, dyspnea occurs at rest also.
Chronic bronchitis symptoms of COPD:
— In patients with chronic bronchitis ,chronic cough and sputum production are the major symptoms.
The sputum is usually clear and thick.
Periodic chest infections can cause fever, dyspnea, coughing, production of purulent (cloudy and discolored) sputum and wheezing. (Wheezing is a high pitched noise produced in the lungs during exhalation when mucous, bronchospasm, or loss of lung elasticity obstructs airways.)
Infections occur more frequently as bronchitis and bronchiectasis progress.
Advanced symptoms of COPD:
— In advanced COPD, patients may develop cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the lips and nail beds) due to a lack of oxygen in blood.
— They also may develop morning headaches due to an inability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
— Weight loss occurs in some patients, primarily (another possibility is reduced intake of food) because of the additional energy that is required to breathe.
— In advanced COPD, small blood vessels in the lungs are destroyed, and this blocks the flow of blood through the lungs.
As a result, the heart must pump with increased force and pressure to get blood to flow through the lungs. (The elevated pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs is called pulmonary hypertension.)
If the heart cannot manage the additional work, right heart failure also known as Cor pulmonale results and leads to swelling of the feet and ankles.
— Patients with COPD may cough up blood (hemoptysis).
Usually hemoptysis is due to damage to the inner lining of the airways and the airways’ blood vessels; however, occasionally, hemoptysis may signal the development of lung cancer.
COPD usually is first diagnosed on the basis of a medical history which discloses many of the symptoms of COPD and a physical examination which discloses signs of COPD.
Other tests to diagnose COPD include
computerized tomography (CAT or CT scan) of the chest,
tests of lung function (pulmonary function tests) and
the measurement of carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the blood
Another very effective and simple test used to monitor COPD is called the six minute walking test (6MWT)
The goals of COPD treatment are:
1. to prevent further deterioration in lung function;
2. to alleviate symptoms
3. to improve performance of daily activities and quantity of life.
The treatment strategies include:
1. quitting cigarette smoking;
2. taking medications to dilate airways (bronchodilators) and decrease airway inflammation;
3. vaccination against flu and pneumonia
4. regular oxygen supplementation and
5. pulmonary rehabilitation
Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of moderate to severe COPD.
Belladonna suits cases of bronchitis with a violent fever, short,dry, continual,distressing cough,worse at night and on lying down.
The breathing is irregular and hurried, no expectoration, with fulness in chest without any pain.
The sovereign remedy in inflammatory bronchial catarrh
there is roughness and soreness from the fauces down through the middle of the chest, a dry, raw concussive cough, which is very exhausting ;sputum watery, saliva-like,or yellow and muco-purulent.
There is fever and alternation of hills and heat, desire for cold drinks, which aggravate the cough and pasty sweat without relief.
This remedy corresponds to two stages of bronchitis, an early one and a late one.
In the beginning of capillary bronchitis in young infants, or in old people, this remedy stands most prominent.
There are sub- crepitant rales throughout the chest, wheezing breathing, the cough sounds loose, but no phlegm is raised.
In children the cough is infrequent, and the child becomes drowsy, the respiration is superficial, requiring labored efforts of the respiratory muscles, and vomiting of food and mucus may be present.
In these cases carbon dioxide poisoning threatens, and the patient’s own mucous secretion drown him are the clear indication of Antimonium tartaricum.
The sphere of Aconite in bronchitis is limited to the onset of the affection.
When, as a result of checked perspiration, exposure to cold, drafts or dry, cold winds,a cold is taken starting in with a coryza, frequent sneezing, chilliness,restless sleep,full,hard pulse, and the characteristic mental condition
Aconite will come in,though its stage is a brief one is usually over before the physician sees the case.
It is of use, therefore,only before the inflammation is localized.
Probably this remedy is seldom indicated in pure bronchitis,though very frequently given.
It is of especial good service when the cough is very severe, hurting the head and distant parts of the body.
The patient presses the hands on the sides of the chest while coughing to relieve the pain.
There is great pressure over the sternum,dyspnoea, and a dry cough,which seems to start from the stomach.
It is worse after a meal and there is but little expectoration.
Stitching pains in the sides, of course, further indicate Bryonia.
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